An Annotated Bibliography on CDMA
The literature of spread spectrum is voluminous. The
following bibliography includes works from introductory to deep and highly
mathematical. Additional material may be traced from the references listed,
especially the Simon, et al. textbook. The Shannon,
Scholtz, and Price
papers may interest historically inclined readers.
The list is organized as:
- Usually scholarly, some not-so-scholarly but otherwise
- Historical material of various kinds
- Narratives of the beginnings of spread spectrum. Some
of the early technical papers are also relevant to the history.
You might also want to look at the Standards
page, which is a compiliation of some of the more relevant
standards documents. Those documents are available from the
various Standards Organizations,
from North American Resellers,
and from International
- S. W. Golomb, Shift
Register Sequences, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, California,
1982, ISBN 0-89412-048-4.
- Exhaustive treatment of the mathematical properties
of linear feedback shift register sequences, such as the spreading codes
in commercial CDMA. Some of these properties seem, at first sight, remarkable,
such as the fact that every internal node in LFSR generators
runs through the same sequence, although with different phases. Some
southern California readers might recognize Professor Golomb as the
author of the weekly puzzle column in their newspapers.
- W. C. Jakes, Jr. (Ed.), Microwave Mobile Communications,
J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974; reprinted by IEEE Press, 1994,
A classic work on electromagnetic propagation phenomena in the microwave
mobile environment. Includes the famous "Jakes" fading model,
for which R. H. Clarke was actually responsible (see papers).
- W. C. Y. Lee, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications,
2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995, ISBN 0-07-038089-9.
A very down-to-earth treatment of cellular radio systems from the engineer
who built the PacTel Cellular (now AirTouch Communications) Los Angeles
system. Lots of good, practical information based in concrete, real-life
experience. This second edition adds material on digital air interfaces
and intelligent networks to the already-popular first edition.
D. Parsons, The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, Wiley,
New York, 1992, ISBN 0-470-21824-X.
- Comprehensive treatise on UHF radio propagation as
it applies to cellular and PCS. Propagation modeling is, at best, a
bit of a black art - part physics, part phenomenology, part numerical
analysis. Parsons does an excellent review of the state of the art from
all these viewpoints.
- R. L. Peterson, R. E. Ziemer,
and D. E. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications,
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995, ISBN 0-02-431623-7.
- Graduate-level textbook; an excellent complement to
the encyclopedic Simon, et al. book
- J. G. Proakis, Digital
Communications, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
1989, ISBN 0-07-050937-9.
- The current de facto standard textbook on digital
communications - encyclopedic and lucid, although not directed specifically
at spread spectrum. One brief chapter is devoted to spread spectrum.
- M. K. Simon, J. K. Omura,
R. A. Schultz, and B. K. Levitt, Spread Spectrum Communication
Handbook, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994, ISBN 0-07-057629-7.
- Encyclopedic reference on spread spectrum - Contains
an exhaustive bibliography, and a very interesting history.
- A. J. Viterbi, CDMA
Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication, Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA, 1995, ISBN 0-201-63374-4.
- Fundamenntals of the coding, modulation, and signal
processing aspects of CDMA. Very mathematical.
- P. A. Bello, "Characterization
of Randomly Time-Variant Linear Channels," IEEE Trans. on
Comm. Systems CS-11, Dec. 1963, pp. 360-393.
- An exemplary work underlying the theory of fading
communication channels. Very mathematical, not for the faint-hearted!
- P. T. Brady, "A Statistical
Analysis of On-Off Patterns in 16 Conversations," Bell
System Technical Journal 47, 1968, 73-91.
- Careful measurements of the acitivity in natural conversational
- R. H. Clarke, "Statistical Theory of Mobile-Radio
Reception," Bell System Technical Journal 47,
July 1968, pp. 957-1000.
- Models mobile radio reception as the superposition
of randomly phased azimuthal plane waves. This paper introduces the
mis-attributed "Jakes" fading model.
- D. C. Cox, "910 MHz
Urban Mobile Radio Propagation: Multipath Characteristics in New York
City," IEEE Trans. Comm. COM-21,
Nov. 1973, 1188-1194.
- Presents small-scale statistics of multipath propagation
with delay resolution of 0.1 microsecond. Finds that typical delay spread
is about 2 microseconds, and only occasionally is it longer. Concludes
that the mobile radio channel can be modelled as a Gaussian, quasi WSSUS
channel (see the Bello paper for the definition of WSSUS channels).
This is one of many papers authored by Cox on this general subject.
- K. S. Gilhousen, I. M.
Jacobs, R. Padovani, L. A. Weaver and C. A. Wheatley, "On the capacity
of a cellular CDMA system," IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech.
- The classic theoretical analysis of capacity in an
idealized system - It explains the many-fold invrease in cellular capacity
that is achieved by the interference averaging properties of CDMA over
narrowband analog, and even competing digital technologies.
- IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Committee on Radio
Propagation, "Coverage Prediction for Mobile Radio Systems Operating
in the 800/900 MHz Frequency Range," IEEE Trans. on Veh.
Tech. 57, February 1988, pp.3-71.
- The results from an ad hoc study group formed within
the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society to study propagation models and
- R. Price and P.E. Green, Jr., "A communication
technique for multipath channels," Proc. IRE 46,
- This is the paper that introduced the Rake receiver
concept. "Rake," by the way, is not an acronym. Contrary to
this widespread misconception, it really is a reference to
the garden tool!
- A. H. M. Ross and K. S. Gilhousen, "CDMA Technology
and the IS-95 North American Standard," in The Mobile Communications
Handbook, pp. 430-448, CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press,
1996, ISBN 0-8493-8573-3.
- Brief overview of the IS-95-A cellular air interface
- C. E. Shannon, "Communication
in the presence of noise," Proc. IRE 37,
pp. 10-21, Jan. 1949.
- In this paper, published just a few months after the
landmark "Mathematical theory of communication" paper, Shannon
laid the foundations for optimal channel use by means of noiselike signals.
- G. L. Turin, "Introduction to Spread spectrum
antimultipath techniques and their application to urban digital radio,"
Proc. IEEE 68, 1980, pp. 328-354.
- Rather readable discussion of the Rake receiver concept.
A. J. Viterbi, "Error Bounds for Convolutional Codes and an Asymptotically
Optimum Decoding Algorithm," IEEE Trans. Inform. Th.
IT-13, 1967, pp. 260-269.
- Presents the now legendary Viterbi decoder algorithm.
- A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, "Performance
of Power-Controlled Wideband Terrestrial Digital Communications,"
IEEE Trans. on Comm. 41(4), 1993, PP.
- A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, K. S. Gilhousen, and
E. Zehavi, "Soft Handoff Extends CDMA Cell Coverage and Increases
Reverse Link Capacity," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications
12(8), 1994, pp. 1281-1288.
- A. M. Viterbi and A. J. Viterbi, "Erlang Capacity
of a Power Controlled CDMA System," IEEE J. on Selected Areas
in Communication 11(6), 1993, pp. 892-900.
- Calculates blocking probabilities based on a non-traditional,
CDMA-specific definition of blocking.
- R. A. Scholtz, "The
origins of spread spectrum communications," IEEE Trans. Commun.,
COM-30, pp. 822-854, May 1982 (Part I).
- R. A. Scholtz, "Notes on spread spectrum history,"
IEEE Trans. Commun., COM-31, pp. 82-84, Jan. 1983.
- R. Price, "Further
notes and anecdotes on spread-spectrum origins," IEEE Trans. Commun.,
COM-31, pp. 85-97, Jan. 1983.
- These three papers are a fascinating account of the
historical origins of spread spectrum. Early events include the bizarre
story of U. S. Patent number 2, 292, 387, granted in 1942 to Hedy K.
Markey and George Antheil, neither of them engineers, for "Secret
Communication System." Hedy K. Markey was better known at the time
under her Hollywood stage name, Hedy Lamarr. Antheil was a composer
of symphonies, which may account for the statement in the disclosure
that a frequency hopping repertoire of 88 frequencies could readily
be accommodated. Hints of spread spectrum techniques actually can be
found in work as early as 1901.
- Shannon, loc. cit.
This paper, while still of technical interest, really marked the beginning
of the spread spectrum concept.
- Simon, et al., loc. cit.
Besides being the standard reference work on spread spectrum, the Simon
handbook also has an extensive historical account of the development
of CDMA, primarily in the classical military applications: LPI and anti-jam.
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