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An Annotated Bibliography on CDMA

The literature of spread spectrum is voluminous. The following bibliography includes works from introductory to deep and highly mathematical. Additional material may be traced from the references listed, especially the Simon, et al. textbook. The Shannon, Scholtz, and Price papers may interest historically inclined readers.

The list is organized as:


  • Usually scholarly, some not-so-scholarly but otherwise interesting
  • Historical material of various kinds
Narratives of the beginnings of spread spectrum. Some of the early technical papers are also relevant to the history.

You might also want to look at the Standards page, which is a compiliation of some of the more relevant standards documents. Those documents are available from the various Standards Organizations, from North American Resellers, and from International Resellers.

S. W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, California, 1982, ISBN 0-89412-048-4.

Exhaustive treatment of the mathematical properties of linear feedback shift register sequences, such as the spreading codes in commercial CDMA. Some of these properties seem, at first sight, remarkable, such as the fact that every internal node in LFSR generators runs through the same sequence, although with different phases. Some southern California readers might recognize Professor Golomb as the author of the weekly puzzle column in their newspapers.

W. C. Jakes, Jr. (Ed.), Microwave Mobile Communications, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974; reprinted by IEEE Press, 1994, ISBN 0-7803-1069-1.

A classic work on electromagnetic propagation phenomena in the microwave mobile environment. Includes the famous "Jakes" fading model, for which R. H. Clarke was actually responsible (see papers).

W. C. Y. Lee, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995, ISBN 0-07-038089-9.

A very down-to-earth treatment of cellular radio systems from the engineer who built the PacTel Cellular (now AirTouch Communications) Los Angeles system. Lots of good, practical information based in concrete, real-life experience. This second edition adds material on digital air interfaces and intelligent networks to the already-popular first edition.

D. Parsons, The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, Wiley, New York, 1992, ISBN 0-470-21824-X.

Comprehensive treatise on UHF radio propagation as it applies to cellular and PCS. Propagation modeling is, at best, a bit of a black art - part physics, part phenomenology, part numerical analysis. Parsons does an excellent review of the state of the art from all these viewpoints.

R. L. Peterson, R. E. Ziemer, and D. E. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995, ISBN 0-02-431623-7.

Graduate-level textbook; an excellent complement to the encyclopedic Simon, et al. book

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1989, ISBN 0-07-050937-9.

The current de facto standard textbook on digital communications - encyclopedic and lucid, although not directed specifically at spread spectrum. One brief chapter is devoted to spread spectrum.

M. K. Simon, J. K. Omura, R. A. Schultz, and B. K. Levitt, Spread Spectrum Communication Handbook, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994, ISBN 0-07-057629-7.

Encyclopedic reference on spread spectrum - Contains an exhaustive bibliography, and a very interesting history.

A. J. Viterbi, CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995, ISBN 0-201-63374-4.

Fundamenntals of the coding, modulation, and signal processing aspects of CDMA. Very mathematical.
P. A. Bello, "Characterization of Randomly Time-Variant Linear Channels," IEEE Trans. on Comm. Systems CS-11, Dec. 1963, pp. 360-393.

An exemplary work underlying the theory of fading communication channels. Very mathematical, not for the faint-hearted!

P. T. Brady, "A Statistical Analysis of On-Off Patterns in 16 Conversations," Bell System Technical Journal 47, 1968, 73-91.

Careful measurements of the acitivity in natural conversational human speech.

R. H. Clarke, "Statistical Theory of Mobile-Radio Reception," Bell System Technical Journal 47, July 1968, pp. 957-1000.

Models mobile radio reception as the superposition of randomly phased azimuthal plane waves. This paper introduces the mis-attributed "Jakes" fading model.

D. C. Cox, "910 MHz Urban Mobile Radio Propagation: Multipath Characteristics in New York City," IEEE Trans. Comm. COM-21, Nov. 1973, 1188-1194.

Presents small-scale statistics of multipath propagation with delay resolution of 0.1 microsecond. Finds that typical delay spread is about 2 microseconds, and only occasionally is it longer. Concludes that the mobile radio channel can be modelled as a Gaussian, quasi WSSUS channel (see the Bello paper for the definition of WSSUS channels). This is one of many papers authored by Cox on this general subject.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, L. A. Weaver and C. A. Wheatley, "On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system," IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech. VT-40(2):303-312, 1991.

The classic theoretical analysis of capacity in an idealized system - It explains the many-fold invrease in cellular capacity that is achieved by the interference averaging properties of CDMA over narrowband analog, and even competing digital technologies.

IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Committee on Radio Propagation, "Coverage Prediction for Mobile Radio Systems Operating in the 800/900 MHz Frequency Range," IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech. 57, February 1988, pp.3-71.

The results from an ad hoc study group formed within the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society to study propagation models and make recommendations.

R. Price and P.E. Green, Jr., "A communication technique for multipath channels," Proc. IRE 46, 555-570.

This is the paper that introduced the Rake receiver concept. "Rake," by the way, is not an acronym. Contrary to this widespread misconception, it really is a reference to the garden tool!

A. H. M. Ross and K. S. Gilhousen, "CDMA Technology and the IS-95 North American Standard," in The Mobile Communications Handbook, pp. 430-448, CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8493-8573-3.

Brief overview of the IS-95-A cellular air interface standard

C. E. Shannon, "Communication in the presence of noise," Proc. IRE 37, pp. 10-21, Jan. 1949.

In this paper, published just a few months after the landmark "Mathematical theory of communication" paper, Shannon laid the foundations for optimal channel use by means of noiselike signals.

G. L. Turin, "Introduction to Spread spectrum antimultipath techniques and their application to urban digital radio," Proc. IEEE 68, 1980, pp. 328-354.

Rather readable discussion of the Rake receiver concept.

A. J. Viterbi, "Error Bounds for Convolutional Codes and an Asymptotically Optimum Decoding Algorithm," IEEE Trans. Inform. Th. IT-13, 1967, pp. 260-269.

Presents the now legendary Viterbi decoder algorithm.

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, "Performance of Power-Controlled Wideband Terrestrial Digital Communications," IEEE Trans. on Comm. 41(4), 1993, PP. 559-569.

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, K. S. Gilhousen, and E. Zehavi, "Soft Handoff Extends CDMA Cell Coverage and Increases Reverse Link Capacity," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications 12(8), 1994, pp. 1281-1288.

A. M. Viterbi and A. J. Viterbi, "Erlang Capacity of a Power Controlled CDMA System," IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Communication 11(6), 1993, pp. 892-900.

Calculates blocking probabilities based on a non-traditional, CDMA-specific definition of blocking.
R. A. Scholtz, "The origins of spread spectrum communications," IEEE Trans. Commun., COM-30, pp. 822-854, May 1982 (Part I).

R. A. Scholtz, "Notes on spread spectrum history," IEEE Trans. Commun., COM-31, pp. 82-84, Jan. 1983.

R. Price, "Further notes and anecdotes on spread-spectrum origins," IEEE Trans. Commun., COM-31, pp. 85-97, Jan. 1983.

These three papers are a fascinating account of the historical origins of spread spectrum. Early events include the bizarre story of U. S. Patent number 2, 292, 387, granted in 1942 to Hedy K. Markey and George Antheil, neither of them engineers, for "Secret Communication System." Hedy K. Markey was better known at the time under her Hollywood stage name, Hedy Lamarr. Antheil was a composer of symphonies, which may account for the statement in the disclosure that a frequency hopping repertoire of 88 frequencies could readily be accommodated. Hints of spread spectrum techniques actually can be found in work as early as 1901.

Shannon, loc. cit.

This paper, while still of technical interest, really marked the beginning of the spread spectrum concept.

Simon, et al., loc. cit.

Besides being the standard reference work on spread spectrum, the Simon handbook also has an extensive historical account of the development of CDMA, primarily in the classical military applications: LPI and anti-jam.

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